01 Aug What to Consider for Sample Design in India
With 1.3 billion people in total, India is more like a continent than a country, with huge diversity of cultures, languages, religions and ‘tastes’.
Rural dominates, only 32% of all Indians live in urban areas.
Nationally there is a gender imbalance of 940 females to 1000 males, but this swings dramatically across states, ( For example, Kerala has 1084 females to 1000 males while Haryana has only 877 females).
There is no single common language in India. The official language is Hindi but it is actually spoken by less than 4:10 Indians, with 22 more languages recognised by the Indian constitution. India’s literacy rate is 74.04% with a strong gender imbalance (rural females especially low literacy).
When setting quotas, usually age, gender and income are used for basic consumer research. In more truly representative studies, classification of communities i.e. Rural, Urban, and Tribal, must also be stratified.
India’s consumer segment is broadly segregated into urban and rural markets, and is attracting marketers from across the world. The segment comprises a huge middle class, relatively large affluent class and a small economically disadvantaged class. The greatest consumer spending is likely to occur in food, housing, consumer durables, and transport and communication sectors.
India’s demographic profile skews young, and is increasingly turning urban. The Government of India is now focussed on urban development with specific programs such as smart cities and more. A large and growing middle class, prominent in such urban centres, is not only increasingly consuming higher end goods and services but starting to redefine the luxury market.
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